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Home Fungi Caps on stems; gills below caps [mushrooms or mushroom-like] Lepiota s.l.

Lepiota s.l.

 

The fruit bodies are mushrooms that arise from soil or humus. The caps of mature specimens are dry and typically with a whitish base over which (except towards the centre) there are concentric rings of scales, usually of a different colour, commonly brown. The centre of the cap l is of the same colour as the scales.

 

In young mushrooms, before the cap has expanded, the cap is uniformly of the same colour as the scales. However, as the cap expands, the cells that make up the skin of the cap do not expand (whereas those in the flesh of the cap do). That skin ruptures. As the cap enlarges, the greatest expansion is at the margin, the least at the centre. Hence, the skin suffers its greatest breakage at the margin, resulting in a very sparse ring of scales at the margin. There is less and less breakage as you move inwards so the scale density increases as you move inward and at the centre, where there is  very little or no expansion, the colour is solid because there the skin remains largely intact.

 

The gills are white and no gills reach the stem (technically, the gills are free). In most mushroom genera, if you look at the underside of the cap you will see a mix of long and short gills extending inwards from the cap edge with long gills reaching the stem. There are only a few mushroom genera with free gills.      

 

Usually, on the stem there is a ring of tissue. This is the remnant of the partial veil, a membrane that covered the gills when the mushroom was still quite immature. At that time the membrane extends from the cap margin to the stem. As the cap expands the partial veil breaks at the cap margin and remains attached to the stem. However, in some species this ring is fragile and may break up and fall off.   

 

The pair of letters s.l. is a standard abbreviation in botanical works for the Latin phrase sensu lato (meaning 'in the broad sense'). Lepiota, as understood decades ago, has been split into several genera that are not always easy to recognize visually. Note that the genus Lepiota still exists but more narrowly defined than before. The usage of s.l. will, at times, allow a level of identification finer than family but where it is not possible to have any confidence in assigning a genus to a photograph.

 

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Lepiota s.l. at Weetangera, ACT - 2 Jun 2022 by trevorpreston Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 22 May 2022 by ruthkerruish Lepiota s.l. at Stromlo, ACT - 21 May 2022 by trevorpreston Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 13 May 2022 by ruthkerruish Lepiota s.l. at Watson, ACT - 4 Mar 2022 by MAX Lepiota s.l. at Crace, ACT - 22 Jun 2021 by Ned_Johnston Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 30 May 2021 by tpreston Lepiota s.l. at Kowen, ACT - 16 May 2021 by CanberraFungiGroup Lepiota s.l. at Holt, ACT - 1 Apr 2021 by drakes Lepiota s.l. at Throsby, ACT - 30 Mar 2021 by tpreston Lepiota s.l. at Cook, ACT - 25 Mar 2021 by drakes Lepiota s.l. at Mongarlowe, NSW - 3 Mar 2021 by LisaH Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 29 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 29 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen Lepiota s.l. at Higgins, ACT - 26 Apr 2020 by Alison Milton Lepiota s.l. at Deakin, ACT - 14 Apr 2020 by Boronia Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 10 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 10 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen Lepiota s.l. at Dunlop, ACT - 7 Apr 2020 by Alison Milton Lepiota s.l. at Deakin, ACT - 21 Jun 2019 by JackyF Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 5 Apr 2019 by ruthkerruish Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 31 Mar 2019 by JackyF Lepiota s.l. at - 3 Jun 2017 by Qwerty Lepiota s.l. at Acton, ACT - 2 May 2017 by Qwerty Lepiota s.l. at Acton, ACT - 6 Jun 2016 by KenT Lepiota s.l. at Cotter River, ACT - 29 May 2016 by KenT Lepiota s.l. at Paddys River, ACT - 4 Apr 2014 by galah681 Lepiota s.l. at Paddys River, ACT - 4 Apr 2014 by galah681
Lepiota s.l. at Weetangera, ACT - 2 Jun 2022 by trevorpreston
Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 22 May 2022 by ruthkerruish
Lepiota s.l. at Stromlo, ACT - 21 May 2022 by trevorpreston
Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 13 May 2022 by ruthkerruish
Lepiota s.l. at Watson, ACT - 4 Mar 2022 by MAX
Lepiota s.l. at Crace, ACT - 22 Jun 2021 by Ned_Johnston
Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 30 May 2021 by tpreston
Lepiota s.l. at Kowen, ACT - 16 May 2021 by CanberraFungiGroup
Lepiota s.l. at Holt, ACT - 1 Apr 2021 by drakes
Lepiota s.l. at Throsby, ACT - 30 Mar 2021 by tpreston
Lepiota s.l. at Cook, ACT - 25 Mar 2021 by drakes
Lepiota s.l. at Mongarlowe, NSW - 3 Mar 2021 by LisaH
Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 29 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen
Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 29 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen
Lepiota s.l. at Higgins, ACT - 26 Apr 2020 by Alison Milton
Lepiota s.l. at Deakin, ACT - 14 Apr 2020 by Boronia
Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 10 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen
Lepiota s.l. at Denman Prospect, ACT - 10 Apr 2020 by AaronClausen
Lepiota s.l. at Dunlop, ACT - 7 Apr 2020 by Alison Milton
Lepiota s.l. at Deakin, ACT - 21 Jun 2019 by JackyF
Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 5 Apr 2019 by ruthkerruish
Lepiota s.l. at Hughes, ACT - 31 Mar 2019 by JackyF
Lepiota s.l. at - 3 Jun 2017 by Qwerty
Lepiota s.l. at Acton, ACT - 2 May 2017 by Qwerty
Lepiota s.l. at Acton, ACT - 6 Jun 2016 by KenT
Lepiota s.l. at Cotter River, ACT - 29 May 2016 by KenT
Lepiota s.l. at Paddys River, ACT - 4 Apr 2014 by galah681
Lepiota s.l. at Paddys River, ACT - 4 Apr 2014 by galah681
1,291,913 sightings of 8,115 species in 1,328 locations from 5,396 members
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