The following moderators provide knowledge and expertise for Other puffballs, etc (& the unknowns):
KenT | CanberraFungiGroup | Pam
Obviously this sub-group holds the powdery spored leftovers – genera that don’t fit into any of the preceding sub-groups. It also holds the unknowns (mostly sightings of immature specimens where identification to genus is problematic).
Calostoma: A spore sac (about a centimetre in diameter) atop a stem of equal diameter At the apex of the spore sac there is a cross-like to star-like mouth. The stem looks like a braided bundle of roughened cords and has a rubbery texture (at least initially or in moist conditions).
Tulostoma: A spore sac atop a dry, fibrous stem much narrower then the spore sac, which ranges from 1 to 3 centimetres in diameter and has an apical hole. When Tulostoma appears, in loose sand (e.g. at the seaside or in arid areas) wind may blow enough sand away to leave the spore sac up in the air atop an easily visible stem. However, in Canberra Tulostoma is usually found with the stem buried in the ground or only slightly protruding.
Tulostoma could be confused with Bovista or Disciseda unless you check for the stem.
**Battarrea: The fruitbody consists of a dry, woody stem with a cushion-like top. A cap falls off the cushion to expose the powdery spores. The stem may grow to more than 30 centimetres, the cushion to several centimetres across. Not yet known from the local area, but reported from the Wagga Wagga region, a little outside the Canberra Nature Map boundary.
** Podaxis: A mature fruitbody may be up to 15 centimetres tall and consists of a stalk with a gradually broadening upper portion, the latter covered with a white casing. The casing breaks and falls off, to reveal a mass of vary dark brown spores. It is well-known from arid areas (though not confined to there) and there seems to be no specimen-based record of this genus closer to Canberra than near Hillston, NSW – well outside the Canberra Nature Map area. There is an ostensible record of the genus from the far south of the ACT, based on genetic analysis of a soil sample.
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