By Michael Bedingfield, May 2017
This is a personal viewpoint which I hope explains a little about how Canberra Nature Map evolved from a simple concept to a complex and sophisticated nature mapping website. Also see "Afterward, 5 December 2018".
The Canberra Spider Orchid, Caladenia actensis, was the inspiration for the creation of Canberra Nature Map (CNM) and its logo. This orchid is an endangered plant that is endemic to the ACT. When Aaron Clausen accidentally encountered these beautiful orchids he began a search to find out more about them and how to ensure their continued survival. Eventually he linked up with Michael Mulvaney who is a senior environmental planner in Conservation Planning and Research (CPR) in Environment ACT. Following discussion with Michael, Aaron decided to create a small website to map the location of these orchids using GPS technology.
After some months and continued discussions with Michael, the concept grew to cover rare plants in general. With Aaron’s talent and professional IT experience, and Michael’s long career in working as a botanist, biologist and ecologist they put together the basics for a website to map rare plants in the ACT.
In May 2014 I received an email from Michael, inviting me to join in helping with the running of the website, by being a Local Moderator for Tuggeranong Hill and Rob Roy Nature Reserves. This meant taking responsibility for the website content of these reserves. I cautiously accepted and began getting to know the website (username michaelb). I was very impressed with the concept and saw it had a great potential. It was also an opportunity to show off the great diversity of native flora that I had discovered in my area.
A short time later I explained my ideas for the project and its future and told them of my plans to use CNM to document the local flora in the above reserves as well as the nearby Murrumbidgee River Corridor using my stash of old photographs. Seeing my enthusiasm Aaron made me an administrator for the website so I could help with its development. Again I was cautious about this new role, but eventually found it to be very fruitful, and the three of us have done it ever since. During the 1970s and 1980s my public service career was in computer programming and systems analysis, and this background made me quite useful to the development of the website.
The amateur naturalist members often didn’t know the difference between common plants and rare ones, so it was soon realised that, in order to optimise the recording of rare plants, we had to fully embrace reporting common ones. It was also very valuable to know about the complex flora communities that rare plants were part of. Then, by the end of 2014 we were receiving reports of exotic plants and noxious weeds. A few of our regular users were shocked and protested. At first we tried to separate them away from our normal records, but as they kept coming in we had to make an adjustment and embrace exotic plants and weeds as well. So we began to cover the whole range of wild plants. This has been extremely useful. Our knowledge of the whereabouts of rare plants has grown enormously since our humble beginnings. Also the Park Rangers have become involved and if a serious weed problem is reported then Michael can inform them immediately, and they can use the GPS location to go directly to the site and deal with it.
This is how our growth has happened, in a natural organic way, learning as we go, being responsive to the needs of our users and accepting their discoveries willingly.
It has been a huge job to create a plant species structure which is easy for amateurs to understand yet scientifically sound, as well as getting the spelling right for all those names, doing countless identifications, selecting the best photos for our species lists, etc. The efforts of Betty Woods and Michael Mulvaney need to be acknowledged here. Betty Woods kindly allowed us to bulk-import the photos of regional plants, with locations, from her and Don Woods’ books. Also David Nicholls (ferns), Heino Lepp (fungi, mosses, etc.) and Tony Wood (orchids) were there for us from the start.
Our greatest success has been with plants, and now after several years of receiving sightings and much support from local enthusiasts, our plant species lists and photographs are quite excellent and the major source of information and education on the flora of the ACT.
At the time I joined CNM there was a very limited agenda, namely the mapping of rare plants with photographic data solely from modern digital cameras with GPS tracking technology. All my photos were from a pre-digital camera, and most of them were of common native plants. It was not difficult to persuade Aaron and Michael to broaden their horizons and accept historical photos without GPS data. So Aaron amended the reporting process and linked into Google Maps so that all that was required to give the location of a plant was to click on the point on a map. This utility is now given to users on request; such users are called ‘Trusted Contributors’ and have elevated privileges.
There has always been a big emphasis on accuracy of data. From the beginning CNM developed a strong relationship with the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA). Our sightings are exported to them. In reality what happens is that on a regular basis they scan our website and take a copy of all new sightings that have come in since their last visit, as well as all those which have been edited in any way. They like our data because it is verified by experts, and they make great use of our photographs that become part of their galleries. We align our species names with theirs for this reason. Michael and Aaron have meetings with their staff at CSIRO when necessary to discuss any issues.
Aaron is a mountain biker and loves the great outdoors, and enjoyed photographing orchids and putting them on the website when he got home. But he realised that the process would be much quicker if he could take the photos and load them onto the Internet on the spot. So he started the development of an App, so he could do it with his iPhone. This required paying another party to do the work. Later he had someone do the same App for Android. This was very expensive and cost tens of thousands of dollars. Fortunately he has been able to recoup the money from government grants and nowadays he looks after the App software himself. But this broadening of the method for reporting has been a great boost to the reporting and also membership.
As the months progressed it became clear to Aaron that this project was very useful and practical and that the platform could be transferable to cover areas other than Canberra. So he then began rewriting the software in such a way that other areas and projects could be taken on without too much effort, provided there were the willing local experts. The new platform is called NatureMapr and CNM is its primary project.
Eventually in 2016, after many negotiations with people down the coast, our sister website for the Atlas of Life Coastal Wilderness (ALCW) became a reality. Anyone who is a member of CNM can login to the ALCW website, and automatically be accepted as a member, and vice versa. (ALCW boundaries)
After our successful beginning with plants we gradually broadened our coverage to include various types of fauna. We began with reptiles and frogs in 2015, linking up with ACT Herpetological Association through Geoff Robertson and with Frogwatch via Anke Maria Hoefer. Gradually our members took on this expanded coverage. When these two faunal groups were running well we added butterflies with the help of Suzie Bond. Then we became emboldened enough to try birds. This was a much more difficult task because we wanted to incorporate the Canberra Ornithologists Group (COG) database into CNM. They have been surveying birds around Canberra and nearby for many years, and their data is invaluable. We tried at first adding a part of the database, with about 1 million records. This being done the whole system collapsed and our software failed.
Despite Aaron’s best efforts to fix it there was no recovery. The problem was the jump from several thousand records to over a million, and everything was going too slow and we kept having system crashes. So Aaron reluctantly cut the COG data out, and began a period of rewriting some of the more inefficient software.
Eventually we were ready and added back the COG data. This time things went more smoothly. By the beginning of 2016 the bird section was in full flight with Chris Davey as our leading expert. The contribution from bird enthusiasts grew well and we now have excellent photos of many of our birds and a happy relationship with the COG people who can use our website to explore their data in a new way.
In the winter of 2016 we quietly added mammals. Then in August 2016 we took on the enormous task of receiving sightings of all insects and other arthropods (mainly spiders but also centipedes, scorpions, etc.). Our founding experts here were Kim Pullen and Roger Farrow. The huge number of species and the number of different sorts of insects and spiders made this a very complex addition. Since I know very little about insects and spiders, my organising their addition has been ‘a steep learning curve’ to say the least.
Our members have been very keen to participate. In the second half of January 2017 the number of sightings of insects and spiders was roughly double those for plants. This was a significant moment for CNM and a gigantic leap forward from the original plan for the website. Gradually we are getting the support of specialist entomologists for more of the insect groups. Although at the time of writing we have 17 experts just for insects and other arthropods we need more to cover them properly.
Overall the development of CNM has been an enormous task, with thousands of hours of volunteer work. At the time I joined there were only about 50 members and just a few experts covering plants, fungi and mosses, etc. Since then our membership has grown to over 1000 and we have nearly 40 experts covering over 4000 species in the various fauna and flora groups.
We now map the location and abundance of most types of wildlife in the Canberra region, in a way that is useful to science and researchers as well as easy and enjoyable for members. This is our basic purpose.
We also aim to present the flora and fauna we have recorded in a way that is educational and informative, with species lists and photographic libraries. The website is a venue to communicate and share knowledge in a friendly setting which is run almost entirely by volunteers. We also provide the ACT Government with readily accessible and up to date locational information. This is used in decisions regarding the protection and enhancement of Canberra’s natural treasures and is a significant benefit of the project. In return the Government provides funding for the website hosting expenses. From its very simple beginnings CNM has become a highly sophisticated and valuable wildlife mapping website and is a leader in this field.
For the future we are set up to extend the coverage of NatureMapr to other regions, such as we have done with ALCW, and there are several possibilities in the pipeline. We also intend to allow for reports using sound recordings of animals instead of photos. This is especially valuable for frogs, which are very hard to see let alone to photograph, and also birds. We would also like to include private properties as defined locations when they are managed for conservation purposes. The accuracy of our altitude data will be improved too, and lots more.
But for the moment we are taking a break from expansion. We are happy with the enormous progress we have made and want to consolidate for a while. Also Aaron is a new father and has increased family duties as well as his demanding professional career to cope with. However, there will be further growth and change in the future, when time allows. With technology always changing we will have to continue to evolve and we look forward to the challenges ahead.
Since the above essay was written CNM has continued to grow and develop. In the winter of 2017 we increased our coverage to include fish.
Our membership is growing quickly. We now have 1900 members and the number of moderators is now up to about 80. So the number of people using the website continues to grow as well, and at this point our success is a problem in itself. Some key modules in the system have been failing intermittently due to the volume of traffic on the website. So Aaron and new volunteer IT specialist Rohan Thomas are rewriting some of the underlying software to make it more efficient. A part of this has been the addition of a “Maintenance” utility which performs a lot of routine functions in the background and enables sighting reports to be completed faster. Because of this there is a delay time between when a sighting report is received and when the sighting appears in other parts of the website.
Aaron has also put a lot of his energy toward improving the performance of the smartphone Apps. They have been overhauled and new versions released. This should make contributing to CNM easier and smoother.
Earlier in the year we created a new website, the Atlas of Life Budawang Coast (ALBC) with a new group of administrators based in the Milton-Ulladulla area. To do this we reduced the area covered by our first coastal website, ALCW which is based in the Bega area. The new group covers the northern section of the coastline and mountain ranges adjacent to the CNM. So now we have three main websites with common boundaries supported by the NatureMapr platform. You can see the new boundaries for these two coastal projects at: ALCW boundaries and ALBC boundaries.
We have also created a new website for FrogWatch, which is a different concept in that it is strictly for accumulating data on frogs and accepts surveys with a number of species in each report. The main focus of the surveys by FrogWatch members is at particular “Points of Interest”. The Points of Interest concept has been broadened for general use throughout our website network and allows us to monitor species present within a certain radius of a single point on the map. The FrogWatch website will also accept sightings and surveys from non-FrogWatch members away from the Points of Interest. Note that the FrogWatch website is not fully developed yet. Its project boundaries are the same as for CNM.
Another important change this year has been the addition of Audio reporting to the NatureMapr platform. All of our websites, CNM, ALCW, ALBC and FrogWatch accept Audio sightings. This is particularly valuable for frogs and birds, since all frogs and some birds are difficult to photograph. The audio file format used is MPEG4 (.m4a), which is comparable with iPhones.
Improvements have been made in our ability to bulk import data from historical surveys. These tools are available only to administrators but provide valuable information about species abundance and distribution for a great variety of species over time. This information is especially important for research purposes and adds significant value to our database.
In November the NatureMapr platform with the associated websites won the prestigious Banksia Community Award for 2018. It is given by the Banksia Foundation for sustainability at the national level.
As you can see we have been very busy, and the size and complexity of the NatureMapr system is such that the work of maintenance of the software is a very large job. So what was originally a hobby for Aaron is now much more than that and requires a lot of dedicated time, more than can be provided by a person who needs to earn a living and support a family. If he is to continue maintaining and developing CNM and the NatureMapr system he needs to have money coming in to support this work so he can spend less time in paid employment. Paying the bills from internet service providers is also quite expensive. We are grateful for the support we have received from the ACT Government, the Australian Native Plant Society and the people running the coastal websites. However our current financial and workload situation is impractical and impossible for the future. So an important major step for us is to find long-term committed funding.
(The words for this page have been adapted from those I wrote for an article for the Friends of Grasslands newsletter for May-June 2017. )